According to this approach, it is much more important to understand what patients are feeling and how they are feeling rather than to identify what is causing their feelings. Supporters of gestalt therapy argued that earlier theories spent an unnecessary amount of time making assumptions about what causes behaviour. Emerging in the late 1950s, humanistic psychology began as a reaction against the two schools of thought then dominating American psychology.

In planning instruction, effective teachers draw on a growing body of research knowledge about the nature of learning and on craft knowledge about teaching that has stood the test of time. Typically, they consider the special characteristics of the material to be learned, the background of their students, and the conditions under which the teaching and learning are to take place. The sociocultural model asserts that race, ethnicity, gender, religious orientation, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation all play a role in the development and treatment of mental illness. Outside of biological and psychological factors on mental illness, race, ethnicity, gender, religious orientation, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, etc. also play a role, and this is the basis of the sociocultural model. Techniques might include weighing the pros and cons of fighting uncertainty or change. The disadvantages should outweigh the advantages and help you to end the struggle and accept what is unknown.

How do advances in new technologies change our experiences and relationships with our physical environment? Is the workplace or the school still a relevant conception of place when people can work, learn, shop, sight-see places around the world, or consult with a therapist, from just about any physical setting? How will we perceive, think, and behave in virtual reality, augmented reality, and “smart” buildings and cities? These will be the subjects of inquiry for environmental psychology in the near future. These topics soon became an essential part of what environmental psychologists do. Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism.

Moral reasoning develops further, as does practical intelligence—wisdom may develop with experience over time. Memory abilities and different forms of intelligence tend to change with age. Brain development and the brain’s ability to change and compensate for losses is significant to cognitive functions across the lifespan, too. Human development refers to the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development of humans throughout the lifespan.

Together, persons with higher person-environment fit could be expected to be well adjusted and, as such, have more resources at their disposal, which would enhance survival and reproduction. Given such crucial importance of person-environment fit, persons may be motivated to attain, and also monitor, specific fits to their environments. Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. Project for Public Spaces is a nonprofit organization that works to improve public spaces, particularly parks, civic centers, public markets, downtowns, and campuses.

And last, a person must have a good balance between the perceived challenges of the task at hand and his or her own perceived skills. The person must have confidence in his or her ability to complete the task at hand (Figure 2.16). Harlow’s theory was based on studies of primate behaviour when solving puzzles. He found that when presented with a puzzle, monkeys seemed to enjoy solving the puzzles without the presence or expectation of rewards.

According to Rogers , an openness and trust of the self can arise prior to or at the same time as the ability to set the locus of control within the self and become autonomous with one’s decisions and directions in life. Additionally, in setting the locus of control within the self, the individual realizes that they have personal responsibility over their own well-being . This creates a stronger sense of autonomy, or the belief that one is not a passive victim of circumstances but rather an active force. This stage is therefore one of empowerment of the individual as an autonomous responsible agent . The direction one takes is therefore more internally driven and can express the self more.

Education stakeholders have come to rely on mounting research evidence on teaching and learning that, ironically, is challenging to obtain and often written in scientific language not easily understood in common terms. At IBE we identify, select, and interpret research findings for policy-making and practical application in curriculum and learning. Research evidence on the nature of learning is impressively accumulating and at a fast pace.

The list of the periods of development reflects unique aspects of the various stages of childhood and adulthood that will be explored in this book, including physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. So while both an 8-month-old and an 8-year-old are considered children, they have very different motor abilities, cognitive skills, and social relationships. Their nutritional needs are different, and their primary psychological concerns are also distinctive. The same is true of an 18-year-old and an 80-year-old, both considered adults.